In agriculture, multiple cropping or multicropping is the practice of sequentially growing two or more crops in the same piece of land during one growing season instead of just one crop. It can take the form of double-cropping, in which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested, or relay cropping, in which the second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested. A related practice, companion plantingis sometimes used in gardening and intensive cultivation of vegetables and fruits.
Mixed cropping is found in many agricultural traditions. In the Garhwal Himalaya of India, a practice called baranaja involves sowing 12 or more crops on the same plot, including various types of beans, grains, and millets, and harvesting them at different times. In the cultivation of rice, multiple cropping requires effective irrigation, especially in areas with a dry season. Rain that falls during the wet season permits the cultivation of rice during that period, but during the other half of the year, water cannot be channeled into the rice fields without an irrigation system.
The Green Revolution in Asia led to the development of high-yield varieties of rice, which required a substantially shorter growing season of days, as opposed to traditional varieties, which needed to days.
Due to this, multiple cropping became more prevalent in Asian countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Interactive Geography 4p. Agritech Horticulture. Agribusiness Agricultural supplies Agricultural science Agricultural engineering Agroforestry Agronomy Animal husbandry Animal-free agriculture Contract farming Extensive farming Farm Free range Intensive farming animals pigs crops Mechanised agriculture Organic farming Permaculture Sustainable agriculture Universities and colleges Urban agriculture.
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It is of three types, viz. Cultivation of two crops on the same field one after another in a year is called double cropping. Cultivation of three crops one after another on the same field in a year is called triple cropping. Cultivation of crop regrowth after harvest on the same field in a year is known as ratoon cropping.
It is followed in Rice and Sorghum under irrigated conditions. Cultivation of two or more crops together on the same field in a year is called intercropping. It is also known as associated cropping or simultaneous poly-culture. Raising two or more crops by mixing their seeds or without distinct row arrangement is known as mixed inter-cropping, also called mixed cropping. Raising two or more crops together but in separate rows is called row inter cropping.
Raising two or more crops together in a field but in different distinct strips is known as strip infer cropping. Raising two or more crops in a field in a year in such a way that the second crop is planted before the harvest of first crop is called relay inter cropping.
In relay inter cropping; there is some overlapping period of two crops. Yearly sequence of crops on a farm and its interaction with farm resources is called cropping system.
Raising one crop alone in pure stand is known as sole cropping; also called solid planting. Repetitive growing of the same sole crop on the same field in a year is called monoculture. Growing crops in combination with animals such as dairy, poultry, piggery etc. Number of crops grown on the same field in a year multiplied by hundred is called cropping index. Suppression of plant growth of one species by another species due to liberation of biologically active substance from the root or shoot is called allelopathy.
Chemical substances which are liberated in allelopathy and inhibit the growth of another species growing together are known as allelochemicals. The main objective of crop improvement for multiple cropping systems is to increase the total yield of the system over monocultures. What are criteria which should be kept in mind while selecting crop species for multiple cropping system? Following points should be given due importance white selecting crop species for multiple cropping system:.
If one is shallow rooted, the other should be deep rooted so that both can absorb nutrients from different layers of soil. In which crops erect genotypes give higher yield at closer spacing than spreading types? In some pulse crops such as green gram, black gram, soybean and cowpea, erect genotypes give higher yield than spreading types at closer spacings.multiple cropping and modern farming -- MultiCroping Farming
What types of Sorghum and cereal cultivars are expected to give better yield at higher plant densities? In sorghum and cereals, cultivars with low tillering capacity are expected to give higher yields at higher plant densities.If we can't tunnel through the Earth, how do we know what's at its center? A lady introduce her husband's name with saying by which can stop or move train what is that name. Give points yo advocate thst biology is linked with physics chemistry mathsmatics geography.
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Related Questions Asked in Farm Crops What is the difference between double cropping and multiple cropping? Asked in Agriculture What is the difference between cropping system and farming system? Asked in Biology, Ecology and Bionomics What is phase cropping?
Arturo A. Asked in Agriculture, Farm Crops What is the difference between multiple cropping and modern farming method? By multiple cropping farmers grow different crops on same piece of land. It is an another way of increasing the productivity of the land. Farmers make use of more pestiscides, insecticides and chemical fertilizers.
Jagadisg Timsina has written: 'Contribution of cropping systems program research and extension to the rural poor' -- subject s : Case studies, Multiple cropping. Asked in Climatology and Climate Changes How can climate affected mixed cropping system? Climate affects all cropping systems, but in a mixed cropping system, when the climate is not optimal there is a chance for greater loss.
Asked in Middle Ages What is a three field rotation system? A system that allows you to see the cropping pattern in each field each year. Asked in Infectious Diseases What is mono-cropping? Mono cropping means growing a single crop at a time.
Asked in Farm Crops What are the different types of cropping pattern?
Advantages, Types, and Disadvantages of Multiple Cropping System
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Asked in Veterinary Medicine What is veterinarian docking and cropping? A Veterinarian is docking "tails" and cropping "ears".THE country has often faced food crises despite having world's largest irrigation system, abundant land and enormous human resources.
The recent wheat crises had not been eliminated from the memory of the people, when they faced sugar crisis owing to its huge shortage. Such shortages necessitate adoption of measures to improve crop productivity to ensure food security on a sustainable basis. To feed people requires combined efforts of policymakers, agricultural experts, extension agents and the farming community.
There are many techniques to enhance food production such as increasing cropping intensity, practicing multiple cropping, adopting hydroponics and using inputs in balanced amounts with effective plant protection measures. However, among them, multiple cropping is the most effective technique. Multiple cropping refers to growing more than one crop on the same field during the season.
Advantages, Types, and Disadvantages of Multiple Cropping System
This technique makes effective use of inputs such as soil, water, fertiliser etc. Thus output per unit area increases with manifold returns to the growers. Multiple cropping can be done in annual food crops, fodders, vegetables, fruit plants and perennial crops.
It could enable the country to be self-sufficient in food production and export the surplus to generate revenue to finance the cost of other projects. Crops are prone to insect pest attacks which may cause reduction in crop yield and losses.
With multiple cropping, incidence of crop failure owing to biotic agents is minimised. One crop may provide cover to the other against such agents through biological control. For example, canola is intercropped with wheat to shift aphid from wheat to canola, and okra intercropped with cotton diverts insect pests towards the latter. However, the need is to ensure adequate supply of irrigation water to grow more crops simultaneously.
But there is shortage of irrigation water due to losses during conveyance, distribution and application. Another factor to be considered is evolving such varieties that have similar critical growth stages so that inputs such as fertilisers and nutrients could be applied and utilised by all crops in this pattern effectively. This increases the work of genetic scientists. Multiple cropping could also help in maintaining soil fertility provided suitable crops such as legumes are included in the cropping system.
For example intercropping of a legume crop with others could increase the process of nitrogen fixation that would enhance the nutrient status of the soil. An important aspect of multiple cropping is the utilisation of nutrients more efficiently as the crops growing on the same piece of land simultaneously would have different nutritional requirements.
Diverse foods outputs are obtained through multiple cropping, thus providing a chance of choice for using food commodities.Provisioning services, such as the production of food, feed, and fiber, have always been the main focus of agriculture.
Since the s, intensive cropping systems based on the cultivation of a single crop or a single cultivar, in simplified rotations or monocultures, and relying on extensive use of agrochemical inputs have been preferred to more diverse, self-sustaining cropping systems, regardless of the environmental consequences.
However, there is increasing evidence that such intensive agroecosystems have led to a decline in biodiversity as well as threatening the environment and have damaged a number of ecosystem services such as the biogeochemical nutrient cycles and the regulation of climate and water quality. Consequently, the current challenge facing agriculture is to ensure the future of food production while reducing the use of inputs and limiting environmental impacts and the loss of biodiversity.
Here, we review examples of multiple cropping systems that aim to use biotic interactions to reduce chemical inputs and provide more ecosystem services than just provisioning. Our main findings are the identification of underlying ecological processes and management strategies related to the provision of pairs of ecosystem services namely food production and a regulation service.
We also found gaps between ecological knowledge and the constraints of agricultural practices in taking account of the interactions and possible trade-offs between multiple ecosystem services as well as socioeconomic constraints.
We present guidelines for the design of multiple cropping systems combining ecological, agricultural, and genetic concepts and approaches. Over the recent decades, agriculture has focused increasingly on the delivery of provisioning services such as food, fiber, and fuel, paying little attention to other important ecosystem services.
This has led to intensive systems relying on the use of massive amounts of agrochemicals with a limited number of genetically improved species and cultivars, thus reducing the cultivated biodiversity. There is increasing evidence worldwide that such intensive agroecosystems have harmful effects, leading to a decline in biodiversity and threatening the environment Tilman et al.
The challenge of agriculture today is to contribute to current and future food security while preserving farmland biodiversity and limiting the adverse effects on the environment or even producing other ecosystem services. Significant changes in practices and policies are needed to support this shift from farming practices aiming to deliver a single provisioning service to practices that deliver a range of services Robertson and Swinton Plant diversity can provide a range of ecosystem services based on the type positive, neutral, or negative and degree of plant—plant interactions and on the local environmental and management conditions Tilman ; Diaz et al Attempts have been made to quantify the links between biodiversity and ecosystem services De Bello et al.
To move forward, we now need to understand and formalize this relationship which is not straightforward Mace et al. The delivery of ecosystem services depends largely on the interaction between biodiversity and local environmental conditions, which affect ecosystem functioning, and on socioeconomic conditions which determine the ecosystem services that are targeted and their target values. The main challenge for the transition toward a more sustainable agriculture is to determine the plant diversity and associated management practices that could deliver a set of targeted services in given environmental and socioeconomic conditions.
Multiple cropping systems can produce crops at the same time as providing several ecosystem functions in the same space. Although biodiversity in agroecosystems can be based on a mixture of ligneous and herbaceous species, with life spans varying from a few weeks to several decades, this paper focuses on cropping systems that are based on annual herbaceous plants, which are grown primarily to produce grain cereals, legumes, oil crops, etc.
It addresses the main ecological processes underlying the functioning of multiple cropping systems based on annual crops and discusses how the selection of appropriate species, the spatiotemporal arrangement, and the associated agricultural practices can ensure and enhance specific functions to provide the ecosystem services targeted.
It proposes a classification of multiple cropping systems based on their composition and spatiotemporal arrangement. It then analyzes the ecological processes and management strategies that are fundamental to the functioning of multiple cropping systems based on a literature review. Finally, it suggests how agroecological engineering can link the ecosystem services targeted to multiple cropping systems to provide guidelines for future land management strategies and agricultural policies.
Multiple cropping systems consist of growing two or more cultivars or species with a spatial and temporal association. Many studies have classified these systems on the basis of their species composition, design, and management Andrews and Kassam ; Poveda et al.Saya telah berpikir bahwa semua perusahaan pinjaman online curang sampai saya bertemu dengan perusahaan pinjaman Suzan yang meminjamkan uang tanpa membayar lebih dulu.
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Jadi jika Anda memerlukan pinjaman, hubungi mereka melalui email: Suzaninvestment gmail. Anda juga bisa menghubungi saya: Ammisha gmail. Disusun oleh :. NIREM : TAHUN, Dalam rangka meningkatkan produksi tanaman per satuan luas per satuan waktu telah banyak upaya yang dilakukan masyarakat baik melalui intensifikasi, ektensifikasi maupun diversifikasi, dengan tujuan utama adalah untuk mencukupi kebutuhan pangan masyarakat yang semakin bertambah besar dan beragam sejalan dengan laju pertambahan jumlah penduduk yang cepat.
Kesenjangan yang terjadi antara pertambahan produksi yang rendah dan pertumbuhan penduduk yang relatif cepat mendorong upaya peningkatan produksi tanaman melalui pengelolaan tanaman yang tepat pada sebidang lahan melalui penerapan Multiple Cropping dengan input teknologi dan penggunaan sarana produksi yang memadai dengan hasil tanaman yang tinggi dan berkelanjutan.
Semula ditujukan hanya untuk mencukupi kebutuhan keluarga, namun akhir-akhir ini penerapan Multiple Cropping tidak hanya ditujukan untuk keperluan rumah tangga saja dalam waktu terbatas, tapi pada petani di negara maju telah dikembangkan dengan mengaplikasikan berbagai jenis tanaman yang mampu beradaptasi pada kondisi lingkungan yang bervariasi untuk mencukupi kebutuhan pasar dengan teknologi ramah lingkungan.
Penerapan teknologi dalam Multiple Cropping untuk mencukupi kebutuhan pangan di daerah tropis belum terwujud dan masih memerlukan kajian strategis dalam pencapaiannya, tapi petani di negara-negara maju, praktek Multiple Cropping dilakukan secara cermat dengan harapan produksi yang diperoleh secara kuantitas dan kualitas dapat dipertanggungjawabkan.
Beberapa studi kasus adanya praktek Multiple Cropping daerah tropis yang cukup berhasil memberikan pengharapan hidup yang memadai secara berkelanjutan, seperti pada masyarakat tani di Thailand, Filipina dan Indonesia.
Tanaman jagung di antara pohon Eucalyptus, Tanaman kopi di antara pohon Eucalyptus, tanaman sayuran di antara pohon lichi dan tanaman mangga.
Penanaman tanaman sela tersebut hanya efektif pada saat pohon belum tertutup kanopinya. Pemandangan di atas banyak ditemukan pada pola pertanaman di Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Sementara di Indonesia, penerapan Multiple Cropping juga cukup prospektif dengan pola yang beragam seperti yang dilakukan petani di Pulau Jawa, Bali, Sumatra dan Sulawesi Selatan. Melalui input teknologi sederhana, peningkatan produksi tanaman disertai jaminan mutu yang terjaga dalam pola pertanaman ganda merupakan harapan petani masa depan yang menjanjikan dalam upaya meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat.Cowpea intercropped with groundnut in a field in Malawi.
Multiple cropping is a form of Ecological Intensification that is potentially highly sustainable when two or more crops are grown at the same time or in a sequence. But this can be compensated for by determining the optimal spacing and by exploiting various forms of commensalism or mutualism, for example where the tree may be a legume, providing nitrogen for the crop plant beneath.
Intercropping: interspersion of different crops on the same piece of land, such as a home garden, either at random or more commonly in alternate rows usually designed to minimise competition but maximise the potential for both crops to make use of the available nutrients, such as nitrogen supplied by a legume.
Rotations : the growing of two or more crops in sequence on the same piece of land. Agroforestry : annual herbaceous crops are grown interspersed with perennial trees or shrubs. The deeper-rooted trees can often exploit water and nutrients otherwise unavailable to the crops. The trees may also provide shade and mulch, creating a microenvironment, whilst the ground cover of crops reduces weeds and prevents erosion.
Sylvo-pasture : similar to agroforestry, but combines trees with grassland and other fodder species for livestock grazing.
The mixture of shrubs, grass and crops often supports mixed livestock populations. Green manuring : the growing of legumes and other plants to fix nitrogen and then incorporate the nutrients into the soil for the following crop. Commonly used green manures are Sesbania and the fern Azollawhich contains nitrogen-fixing, blue-green algae in ricefields. Multiple cropping is highly sustainable as it relies on reducing competition and increasing mutual benefits between crops.
It can provide a more efficient use of resources, such as soil nutrients, that would not otherwise be available to a single crop; support or shade a companion crop; or host a great diversity of insects, bacteria and other organisms that contribute to pest and disease control.
Nitrogen is essential for plant growth but it is often lost from the soil through unsustainable agricultural and soil management practices. Multiple cropping with nitrogen-fixing legumes can improve soil quality by replenishing the soil with N. Increased N in the soil decreases the reliance on both organic and inorganic fertilisers, reducing the amount of money and labour farmers need to spend on inputs.
Increasing the availability of N in the soil is associated with improved crop growth, which can in turn improve the livelihood of the farmer. Further, incorporating nutrient dense crops such as legumes into the rotation can increase farming households access to nutritious foods, improving their nutrition security. Multiple cropping of compatible crops can encourage biodiversityby providing a habitat for a variety of insects and soil organisms that would not be thrive in a mono-crop environment.
In turn, this may limit the number of outbreaks of pests by increasing the number and diversity of natural predator biodiversity. However, certain insects, pests and diseases may spread easily from one crop to the next through crop residues. Growing a diverse variety of crops through multiple cropping is also thought to be critical to nutrition particularly where households grow the majority of the food they eat.
Micronutrient deficiencies, a sub-set of under nutrition, occur when the body lacks one or more micronutrients such as iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A or folate.
Multiple cropping with crops that are biofortified with micronutrients such as Vitamin A orange fleshed sweet potato can add further nutritive value per hectare. Multiple cropping acts as an insurance against failure of crops in abnormal weather conditions. The risk of total crop failure due to uncertain monsoon is reduced if two crops of a different nature are grown simultaneously as a mixed crop.
When different types of crops are grown together the chances of pest infestations are reduced or diluted. This further reduces the chances of total crop failure for farmers. Examples of planting strategies include combining a deep-rooted crop with a shallow-rooted crop, or planting a tall crop with a shorter crop that requires partial shade. Managing rotations requires more skill than managing a single crop and harvesting may be more complicated than for mono-crop systems.
Successfully implementing multiple cropping may therefore require training and education that can be difficult for smallholder farmers to receive. Farmers may be reluctant to try out new crops that they are not used to growing or eating, or for which no defined market exists.
However, when diversifying the crops grown on a farm, it is vital to ensure that there is either market demand or household demand for the new crops introduced. Local people may be identified and trained as extension workers to change the attitudes of farmers.
On the island of Java, Indonesia, home gardens called pekarangan are particularly well developed. The most extensive areas of home gardens in Java and the most intensive cultivation occur below an altitude of m where the dry season is short or absent.